[7] as an AR application that is concerned with












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of Augmented Reality


The number of applications utilizing augmented
reality is increasing continuously and the outcomes are clear in many domains
e.g. health care, business, education and amusement. This section concerns with
summarizing the prior researches that exploit the augmented reality applications.




AR has had great implications for the medical
industry; however, its more innovative apps come about because of the popular
usage of mobile technology. AR is considered very beneficial in the field of
healthcare training. For example, the healthcare provider can easily install a
program or an application on his mobile. Such program or application may contain
the main list of medical measures for the healthcare providers to select from.
Once the healthcare provider chooses one of the measures from the list, the
first screen will display where the tracking patterns should be situated in the
sick person’s body. After applying the patterns, the training model will begin.





The training program will show an animated simulation in 3D,
indicating precisely when, where, and in what the various manoeuvres’ should be
performed. Also, the user can alter the point of view of the simulation through
moving the mobile phone, either forwards or backwards, via the animation. In addition,
he can display extra notices in the course of particular points of the measures















?  FETCH! Lunch Rush is defined as an AR application that is concerned with teaching mathematical proficiencies to
primary pupils via making use of visualization. Designed in 3-D, the
application utilizes in smartphone camera to place photos on your camera over
real-world surroundings. After that, the application instructs primary pupils to
add and subtract through utilizing real-world situations that permits
visualization at the time of solving mathematical problems.


?  Matching Objects and Words: Nowadays, digital games have been designed
not only for amusement but also to boost the learning process. Matching Objects
and Words application is an AR game that is designed and developed to help
learning words in various languages.



 Mobile Coupons








Nowadays, mobile coupons have become a tendency among customers.
For customers, it was impractical dream to go to the retail store and to have
all the coupon deals forwarded directly to your mobile device. Hence, the
mobile coupon becomes an important instrument. With the development of AR
technology, users became capable of getting good local deals around their
particular places.




E-commerce is considered as one of the most
beneficial applications of the AR apps. Specifically online clothing shopping
due to the users cannot predict whether the clothes will fit them or not.
Hence, individuals start to connect AR with electronic shopping, e.g. clothing
shopping. This step helps to get overcome a biggest obstacle users face in
choose clothing and at the same time improve the quality level and
competitiveness of this business to new levels. AR apps provide customers with
valuable content. This content may tackle the product characteristics and advantages
or may provide information that assists customers to make a comparison between
the different types of products.



Current Challenges
of Augmented Reality


In this section, the current challenges facing
augmented reality are described. They are classified as follows:




There are some perceptual matters associated
with the environment itself. Such matters can cause further problems through
the interaction between the environment and the augmentations. The most
important challenges facing the environment are as follows:


?  Lighting and weather conditions unfortunately, it is indicated that
in outside environments, many of the features existing in natural pictures are
not connected to real physical features. Shadows caused by light being blocked
by objects in the scene help corners and lines to occur and to move as lighting
or climate conditions change. Consequently, a large number of outliners and
divergences influence localization quality, regardless of selecting
corresponding algorithm.


?  The color sceme and diversity of an environment can hamper accurate
perception on the whole and result in major problems while illustrating it. In
addition, the color scheme of an environment would cause major problems in the
light conditions variation. At last, surfaces with high color variances would
influence the reflectiveness of projected images in projector camera systems.




 Display Device


are some technical problems connected with the display device. They are as


?  Camera quality and handling in the light of bad lighting conditions,
the imaging competences of camera sensors that are being widespread in devices
become poor. Pictures are fuzzy and colors begin to undergo significant

?  Color fidelity in outside environments is considered an extremely
difficult issue. Altering the external conditions greatly influence optical
see-through displays than video see-through displays, whereas in video
see-through both the real world and the overlays are presented in the same
color gamut.Still, there are some major challenges even with the much more
developed hardware. Hence, we conclude that we are not completely capable of
utilizing AR as a commonly feature existing on smartphones.









Trends of Augmented Reality


AR is still in its initial phases;
consequently, its upcoming potential applications are never-ending. Advanced
re-search in AR takes account of suggests for an era where the interaction
between individuals and information is done in a straight line without needing
the utilization of any halfway device.MIT Media Lab project “Sixth Sense” is
the best model of AR re-search and Parviz’s contact lens project proposal find
environment where information can only be viewed by the user.


Moreover, augmented reality provides an
opportunity to replace and remedy the absent senses for some impaired
individuals, i.e. AR could be
utilized as a sense alternate instrument. Hearing-impaired individuals could be
given visual signals guiding them to catch missed aural signals and sightless
individuals could be given aural signals guiding them to unknown visual events.
An additional in future some AR applications are not far from challenges social
acceptance issues, privacy concerns, and ethical concern arising.


Alternatively, a small number of related
studies have been prepared for the approval and the usability of AR systems and
innovations in manufacturing instructions and training that require additional
investigations and

research in future. Nonetheless, since many
experts and researchers positively declared the potential likelihood of AR in
industrial and commercial fields in their studies, AR in manufacturing venues
has an opportunity for the growth of its extent into other business fields such
as manufacturing, services, government-related sections, and other industrial settings.
Along with such sections, appears a good opportunity of AR to be experienced in
occupational safety and health (OSH) sectors. AR could be assumed into safety check
up in power plants, chemical plants, and oil refineries, OSH training for
executives and members of staff with computer-generated 3D set-tings, as well
as AR games and simulations about dangerous resources management.


An additional app provided by application
developer Crowd Optic may head for a new development in augmented reality apps.
This new technology of Crowd Optic put fans gathering like shows or sports
events in focus.





Augmented reality is considered a competence
that has been around for years. Augmented reality is still in its initial
phases; and thus the upcoming possible apps are endless. A lot of AR products
have been presented in several kinds and spread around the world. The layering
of information over 3D space creates completely new experiences of the world,
and supports the broader transition of computing from the desktop to the mobile

Augmented Reality

Current and future developments




Jinal Patel jc487477




of Augmented Reality.. 4
Medical 5
Education.. 5
Coupons. 6
Shopping. 6
Challenges of Augmented Reality.. 7
Environment. 7
Device. 8
Trends of Augmented Reality.. 8
Conclusion.. 9



















term augmented reality AR is believed to have been
coined by Tom
Caudell , a Boeing researcher in about 1992. Although AR got its
official name in the 90s, its history goes back quite far. Some see augmented
reality’s beginnings as long ago as the 1930s  when computers were being introduced. Many
others trace origins to the 1960s and 1970s when major companies used early
versions of augmented reality for training and visualization. In the late 50s a
cinematographer, Morton Helig, created a simulator called Sensorama that
produced visual, sounds, vibration and smell, while it wasn’t until 1966 that
the first head mounted display allowing the user to interact with surroundings
was invented by Ivan Sutherland.


As early as 1980, Steve Mann, a professor at the University of Toronto was
wearing computers. From 1994-1996, Mann wore a mobile camera with a visual
display fixed to his head. The camera connected to his computer and allowed
visitors to his website to see what he was seeing. Messages that were sent to
him appeared on the display he wore. Called by some The Human Cyborg, Mann was
the subject of the film Cyberman in 2001.


In 1989, the term Virtual Reality was
coined by Jaron
Lanier. Usually the term Virtual Reality refers to immersive
environments created by applications with visual and 3D effects. When the term Augmented Reality
was used by Tom Caudell in 1992, Caudell was creating applications to help
train workers at Boeing. In the following years many researchers have worked to
create programs that enable augmented reality. Some of the companies involved
in developments are ARToolKit, ARQuake, Layar Browser, Webitude, Total
Immersion, Google and Android Phone. With more focus today on small mobile
devices, augmented reality development is booming especially in the areas of
marketing and entertainment.















The massive technologies around the world have
created significant challenging competition among companies where each of the
companies tries to attract the customers using different techniques. One of the
recent techniques is Augmented Reality. The AR is a new technology which is
capable of presenting possibilities that are difficult for other technologies
to offer and meet. Nowadays, numerous augmented reality applications have been
used in the industry of different kinds and disseminated all over the world. AR
will really alter the way individuals view the world. The AR is yet in its
initial phases of research and development at different colleges and high-tech
institutes. Throughout the last years, AR apps became transportable and
generally available on various devices. Besides, AR be-gins to occupy its place
in our audio-visual media and to be used in various fields in our life in
tangible and exciting ways such as news, sports and is used in many domains in
our life such as electronic commerce, promotion, design, and business. In
addition, AR is used to facilitate the learning whereas it enables students to
access location-specific information provided through various sources. Such
growth and spread of AR applications pushes organizations to compete one
another, and every one of them exerts its best to gain the customers. This
paper provides a comprehensive study of AR including its history, architecture,
applications, current challenges and future trends.



The technological advances have a direct effect
on our life and on our behavioural manner. The Augmented reality moves from the
industrial niches to mass technology


It can be defined as an emergent form of
practice, through which the real world is improved through computer generated
content that is connected to particular places and/or events. In other words,
AR permits the digital content to be effortlessly superimposed and
inter-mingled into our insights and conception of the real world.


Augmented reality can be described as one of
the technologies that can develop a next generation, reality-based interface


Also, it is distinguished by promotion from
just being in test centers around the world to being used in different fields
and consumer markets. Nowadays with the emergence and diffusion of the smart
phones and AR browsers, we begin to accept this different and exciting type of
human computer communication


Inspite of the fact that AR has gained much
more re-search interest and attention recently, various meanings are attached
to the term AR by researchers. Besides, AR could be developed through using and
involving different inventive technologies (for instance, body-borne computers,
mobile phones, and immersive technologies).


During the last years, the AR applications have
turned out to be transportable and broadly accessible on mobile phones. Also,
the AR has become one of our audio-visual media (for instance, news, entertainment
and sports). In addition, it is being used recently in many fields such as
electronic commerce, tourism and pro-motion. Besides, it has turned to be a
very significant part of the Virtual Reality (VR) domain. The AR enjoys clear
advantages in comparison to the traditional VR. One of the key advantages
gained by AR is having a better sense and interaction of reality whereas it
lays emphasis on the organic integration of virtual environment and the real


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