ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR -STEREOTYPIES
order to recognize that behaviour is abnormal , the person observing must be
familiar with the normal behaviour of that species.
difficulty arises if many of the animals
kept show the same kind of abnormal behaviour,may be taken as normal
behaviour.eg:bar biting in sows.
order to obtain knowledge of the behavioural repertoire of animals and
establish what is normality it is necessary to study the animals in a
relatively complex environment where they have the opportunity to show the full
range of their behaviour,it would not be the wild environment but it should provide all the components that
are important for the animal.
extensive knowledge of the biology of
animals and a detailed ecological investigation are therefore needed to
decide what behaviour is abnormal.
v Abnormal behaviour is behaviour that
differs in pattern, frequency or context from that which is shown by most
members of a species in conditions that
allow a full range of behaviour.
and Environment directed
It is a repeated
,relativelyinvariate sequence of
movements which has no obvious purpose.
repertoires of animals such as
walking,flapping flight would not be
called stereotypies rather it should
have some apparent lack of function.
By the time
stereotypy is established no simple function is served.
performance of stereotyped behaviour depends on brain dopamine systems and
opiate peptides in the brain.
,which blocks the mu receptor opiate
sites for opioids such as beta endorphin,when administered cease the
that showed much stereotypy had lower mu and kappa receptorsand lower dopamine
in the frontal cortex,while horses shoeing more stereotypies had more dopamine
receptors in the nucleus.
occur in situations where the individual
lacks control of its environment.
about food inadequacy
environment,housing in individual stables
Occurrence of stereotypies can be
alleviated or eradicated by appropriate environmental enrichment.
Pacing or route tracing
Circling and tail chasing.
Rocking ,swaying and weaving
Rubbinginvolve other parts of the
Pawing and stall kickingbody
Head shaking and head nodding
Tongue rolling involve
Licking or crib whetting oral part
Bar biting ,tether biting or crib biting
OR ROUTE TRACING
The repeated action patterns during pacing or
route tracing are those used in walking
or other locomotion,but the animal follows a path that reurns to its
origin and which is often repeated with only minor modifications.
of zoo animals in cages
conditions of minimal exercise in chronic confinement
oviposition if no nest material is
due to confinement,absence of social partner,absence of food.
comfortable environment by eliminating thwarting circumstances.
OR TAIL CHASING
Animals turn in tight circles and try to catch their
Tail chasing in dogs.
Treatment if it
is neurological or dermatological disorder,
Remove the frustrating
, SWAYING AND WEAVING:
remains in one place,but the body is
moved forwards and backwards from side
to side, with or without head swinging.
cattle when tethered show rocky behaviour.
Weaving in race
horses,resulting in weight loss.
,deprived of mother.
No variety in
Tying the horse
with cross chains to limit the lateral movement of the head.
Turning out to
pasture ,Enforced exercise
Some part of the body is moved against solid object and the movement is repeated so many times ,sometimes to
alleviate local irritation.
confinement, chronic restriction
rubbing against wall.
Head rubbing in
5)PAWING AND STALL KICKING
Pawing is a
normal behaviour of four legged animals,it becomes abnormal
when performed with vigour in a persistent stereotyped fashion.
seeking in horses in case of stall
Hanging mats or barriers
SHAKING OR HEAD NODDING
Head is moved
vertically,laterally with a rotatory movement of neck.
Head shaking in
Head nodding in
of observer in caged birds
Noxious gas in
Movements during which air is sucked in and expelled.
Common in horses
Use of wind
sucker strap fastened tightly around the throat,with a heart shaped piece of
thick leather held between the angles of the jaws with the pointed end
protruding towards a pharyngeal area, which causes discomfort to the horses.
fistulae on each side of the mouth between the buccal cavity and outer cheek.
The eyes are
moved around in the orbit at a time when no visible object is present.
confined in crates sometimes stand immobile
for extended periods and eye rolling is repeated.
Moving jaws when the animal has no food in its mouth
in monogastric animals.
sows when tethered in stalls singly
causes frothing and foaming of saliva.
or fibrous material to chew and root.
The tongue is
extruded from the mouth and moved by curling and uncurling outside or inside the mouth with no solid matter present.
Common in Cattle
and calves immediately before and after feeding.In horses it is called as
metal ring at the frenulum lingue
AND CRIB WHETTING
applied repeatedly to an areas of
animal’s own body or some objects in the surroundings.
Good supply of
BAR BITING ,TETHER BITING OR CRIB BITING
The animal opens
and closes its mouth around a bar and performs chewing movement.
which are more restricted show this behaviour. Crate in front and sides are
made of metal piping or tethers that restrict the movement of the sow
common in cattle. Crib –biting is common in horses
and increasing the food, comfortable environment
Pressing automated drinker repeatedly without
pregnant sows when provided with a nipple drinker.
FRASER AF& BROOM DM.1999.FARM ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR AND WELFARE