ABNORMAL It is a repeated ,relativelyinvariate sequence of movements

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR -STEREOTYPIES

v In
order to recognize that behaviour is abnormal , the person observing must be
familiar with the normal behaviour of that species.

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v A
difficulty arises if many of the animals 
kept show the same kind of abnormal behaviour,may be taken as normal
behaviour.eg:bar biting in sows.

v In
order to obtain knowledge of the behavioural repertoire of animals and
establish what is normality it is necessary to study the animals in a
relatively complex environment where they have the opportunity to show the full
range of their behaviour,it would not be the wild environment  but it should provide all the components that
are important for the animal.

v An
extensive knowledge of the biology of 
animals and a detailed ecological investigation are therefore needed to
decide what behaviour is abnormal.

v Abnormal behaviour is behaviour that
differs in pattern, frequency or context from that which is shown by most
members  of a species in conditions that
allow a full range of behaviour.

ABNORMAL
BEHAVIOURS

1.Stereotypies

2.Self directed
and Environment directed

3.Addressed to
another individual

4.Failure of
function

5.Anamalous
reactivity

STEREOTYPIES

 

It is a repeated
,relativelyinvariate sequence  of
movements which has no obvious purpose.

Behavioural
repertoires of animals  such as
walking,flapping flight  would not be
called stereotypies  rather it should
have some apparent lack of function.

By the time
stereotypy is established no simple function is served.

Physiology of
stereotypy:

ü The
performance of stereotyped behaviour depends on brain dopamine systems and
opiate peptides in the brain.

ü Naloxone
,which blocks the  mu receptor opiate
sites for opioids such as beta endorphin,when administered cease the
stereotypic behaviour.

ü Sows
that showed much stereotypy had lower mu and kappa receptorsand lower dopamine
in the frontal cortex,while horses shoeing more stereotypies had more dopamine
receptors in the nucleus.

ü Stereotypies
occur in situations  where the individual
lacks control of its environment.

Possible
causes :

Ø Frustration
about food inadequacy

Ø Barren
environment,housing in individual stables

ü

Occurrence of stereotypies can be
alleviated or eradicated by appropriate environmental enrichment.

1.    
Pacing or route tracing

2.    
Circling and tail chasing.

3.    
Rocking ,swaying and weaving

4.    
Rubbinginvolve other parts of  the          
                                          

5.    
Pawing and stall kickingbody

6.    
Head shaking and head nodding

7.    
Wind sucking

8.    
Eye rolling

 

9.    
Sham chewing

10.                       
Tongue rolling involve

11.                       
Licking or crib whetting oral part

12.                       
Bar biting ,tether biting or crib biting

13.                       
Drinker pressing

 

 

1.PACING
OR ROUTE TRACING

 The repeated action patterns during pacing or
route tracing are those used in walking 
or other locomotion,but the animal follows a path that reurns to its
origin and which is often repeated with only minor modifications.

Examples

1.Route tracing
of zoo animals in cages

2.Horses under
conditions of minimal exercise in chronic confinement

3.Hens before
oviposition  if no nest material is
available.

 

Causes:

1.Frustration
due to confinement,absence of social partner,absence of food.

Remedy :

Providing
comfortable environment by eliminating thwarting circumstances.

2.CIRCLING
OR TAIL CHASING

Animals  turn in tight circles and try to catch their
own tails.

Causes:

Neurological
disorder

Dermatological
problem

Environmental  inadequacy

Frustration

Example :

  Tail chasing in dogs.

Remedy:

Treatment if it
is neurological or dermatological disorder,

Remove the frustrating
situation.

3)ROCKING
, SWAYING AND WEAVING:

The animal
remains in one place,but the  body is
moved forwards and backwards  from side
to side, with or without head swinging.

Examples:

Monkeys in
captivity

Horses and
cattle when tethered show rocky behaviour.

Weaving in race
horses,resulting in weight loss.

Causes:

No companies
,deprived of mother.

No variety in
the environment

Remedy:

Tying the horse
with cross chains to limit the lateral movement of the head.

Turning out to
pasture ,Enforced exercise

4)
RUBBING:

 Some part of the body is moved against  solid object and the movement  is repeated so many times ,sometimes to
alleviate local irritation.

Causes:

Close
confinement, chronic restriction

Examples :

Horned cattle
rubbing against wall.

Head rubbing in
pigs

Horses rubbing
hindquarters.

5)PAWING  AND STALL KICKING

Pawing is a
normal behaviour of four legged animals,it becomes  abnormal 
when performed with vigour in a persistent stereotyped fashion.

Causes :

Frustration in
dogs

Confinement

Attention
seeking  in horses in case of stall
kicking

Remedy:

Putting in
pasture

Hanging  mats or barriers

6)HEAD
SHAKING OR HEAD NODDING

Head is moved
vertically,laterally with a rotatory movement of neck.

Examples :

Head shaking in
domestic fowl.

Head nodding in
horses

Causes:

Close presence
of observer in caged birds

Noxious gas in
poultry house.

Confinement

Remedy
:Comfortable environment

7)WIND
SUCKING

Movements  during which air is sucked in and expelled.

Common in horses

Remedy:

Use of wind
sucker strap fastened tightly around the throat,with a heart shaped piece of
thick leather held between the angles of the jaws with the pointed end
protruding towards a pharyngeal area,  which causes discomfort to the horses.

Creation of
fistulae on each side of the mouth between the buccal cavity and outer cheek.

8).EYE
ROLLING :

The eyes are
moved around in the orbit at a time when no visible object is present.

Young calves
confined in crates sometimes stand immobile 
for extended periods and eye rolling is repeated.

9).
SHAM CHEWING

Moving  jaws when the animal has no food in its mouth
in monogastric animals.

Common in
sows  when tethered in stalls singly
causes frothing and foaming of saliva.

Remedy :

Providing straw
or fibrous material to chew and root.

Group housing.

 

 

 

10).TONGUE
ROLLING:

The tongue is
extruded from the mouth and moved by curling and uncurling outside or inside  the mouth with no solid matter present.

Common in Cattle
and calves immediately before and after feeding.In horses it is called as
tongue drawing

Remedy :

Wind sucking
traps

Insertion of
metal ring at the frenulum lingue

Provision of
salt licks

11).LICKING
AND CRIB WHETTING

Tongue is
applied  repeatedly to an areas of
animal’s own body or some objects in the surroundings.

Remedy :

Good supply of
feed

Free environment

12)
BAR BITING ,TETHER BITING OR CRIB BITING

The animal opens
and closes its mouth around a bar and performs chewing movement.

Pregnant sows
which are more restricted show this behaviour. Crate in front and sides are
made of metal piping or tethers that restrict the movement of the sow

Bar-biting is
common in cattle. Crib –biting is common in horses

Remedy:

Providing straw
and increasing the food, comfortable environment

13)
DRINKER PRESSING

 Pressing automated drinker repeatedly without
ingesting water.

Common in
pregnant sows when provided with a nipple drinker.

REFERENCE:

FRASER AF& BROOM DM.1999.FARM ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR AND WELFARE

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