Abstract: help of a heart rate sensor and stimulate

Abstract: The idea is to artificially stimulate the brain to
different states by using Binaural Frequencies. The effect of
subjecting the brain to the Binaural Frequencies can be
either relaxing or refreshing depending on the frequency of
the binaural-beat selected by the user, The purpose of this
project is to analyze the state of brain with the help of a
heart rate sensor and stimulate the brain with a synthesized
frequency state that the person wants to be in. As neural
activity in human brain is electrochemical, the way in which
human brain behaves can be modified by introducing
specific chemicals (drugs), by altering the state of brain
either through induction, or through resonant entrainment
techniques. This is offered in form of a portable product
comprising of a software system in the Smart device and a
wireless or wired headphone.
Keywords— Binaural, Frequency, Brain,
Audacity,Arduino.
I. INTRODUCTION
The Project is centered on the notion that Binaural Frequencies
can be used to alter ones neural activity. Binaural beats are
auditory responses which originate in the superior olivary
nucleus of each hemisphere. They are classified into different
categories namely; Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta and Gamma each
having its own distinct frequency ranges lying below 100 Hz.
Based on neural activity within the brain the brain waves change
frequencies. As neural activity is electrochemical, the
functioning of human brain can be altered either by introducing
specific chemicals (drugs). Binaural-Frequency audio signals
were used to probe the support of a person’s performance and
serve as a means to potentially cure many Brain disorders whose
cause is rooted in the chemical imbalances apart from many
other factors. The hypothesis and experimental design of this
study are constructed to be able to answer the question of the
effectiveness of Binaural-frequency in facilitating memory
under controlled conditions. Statistically noteworthy results in
this study would support earlier non-empirical research which
has found Binaural Frequencies to be useful in facilitating
improved academic performance among mainstream and
Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (AD/HD) populations.
The results of the earlier studies, and more tightly controlled
studies with other brain wave training techniques, suggest that
Alpha and Beta frequency can indeed be used to stimulate the
brain into different Brain states; but only if the procedure is
done authentically and the delivery mechanism is precise within
the scope of real time monitoring.
Given the diverse fields, which this project
encompasses; there is a huge scope of innovation both in terms
of improving the hardware, software and ergonomics aspects.
Further innovations would comprise of a product in which all
the features are included in the headphone’s itself; with a built in
software system utilizing the parameters and outputting the
frequencies accordingly. Also the software system which would
be used can be made more intuitive by adding in options such as
“custom-presets” and an entire record of the usage of the
software. One of the more significant usages would be in the
field of medicine, where this device has the potential to replace
potential anti-depressants and other drugs which can cause some
severe side effects.
The sampling rate and the elimination of harmonics is a
concept to improvise and adding more measurement parameters
such as Blood-oxygen levels, Neural Frequencies using EEG
and VO2 MAX. The scope of this product is one of its most
critical advantages. The product encompasses diverse fields in
IJIREEICE ISSN (Online) 2321-2004
ISSN (Print) 2321- 5526
International Journal of Innovative Research in
Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering
ISO 3297:2007 Certified
Vol. 6, Issue xx, 2018
which human cognition plays a key role. The product can be
used for a single subject, both for the consumer or medical
domain or can be scaled up and installed in large areas like
hallways and rooms where it is intended for a large subset of
people.
II. PROJECT WORK
1. The Binaural Beats have been created with the help of
Audio Workstation Ableton.
Figure 2.1 List of Binaural Frequencies
2. These Binaural Beats will be embedded in the secure
digital (SD) card. This SD card will then be interfaced
with the microcontroller. These Binaural beats can be
accessed with the help of a User Interface graphic LCD
panel.
Figure 2.1 Flow Graph of Product
III. BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 2.5 Block Diagram of Auditory Neuro Stimulator Using
Binaural Frequencies
The designing of the block diagram plays a very important
role as it describes the significant system elements. The
diagram below is the block diagram of the project.
1. User will measure his blood pressure and heart rate
sensor with the help of mentioned sensors and will note
down the readings.
2. These readings will be entered by the user on a user
interface like Graphic LCD which is connected with the
Micro Controller.
3. Now based on these readings microcontroller will
compute the best possible binaural beat on the graphic
LCD.
4. Now user has choice to choose between different
binaural beats and based on his convenience he can
choose the desired binaural beat.
Working:
Binaural Frequencies can be used to induce a specific
cortical rhythm as a means of consciousness management
technique to alter ones neural activity. Binaural beats are
auditory responses which originate in the superior olivary
nucleus of each hemisphere. They are broadly classified
into different categories namely; Delta Theta Alpha Beta
and Gamma each having its own distinct frequency
ranges lying below 1000Hz. Brain waves change
frequencies based on neural activity within the brain.
Because neural activity is electrochemical, brain function
can be modified through the introduction of specific
chemicals (drugs), by altering the brain’s electromagnetic
environment through induction, or through resonant
subjection mechanisms. Binaural frequencies can be
generated by aurally exciting each olivary nucleus of the
two brain hemispheres. The rubric to measure the Brain
IJIREEICE ISSN (Online) 2321-2004
ISSN (Print) 2321- 5526
International Journal of Innovative Research in
Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering
ISO 3297:2007 Certified
Vol. 6, Issue xx, 2018
state would be Pulse-Rate. As the persons brain activity is
in direct co-relation with the Pulse-Rate; it is effective
measurement quantity of the efficiency of the product.
The feedback process would work by utilizing the
headphones Pulse-Rate sensor; sending the signals viaBluetooth
to the device. The software would then decide
which binaural frequency to transmit to the headphones in
accordance with the Pulse-Rate.
IV. IMPLEMENTATION
1. Synthesizing the frequencies through a DAW (Digital
Audio Workstation)
This process involves making use of the audio engines and
VST (Virtual Studio Template) software’s to artificially
create binaural frequency as a means of Frequency
subtractive synthesis.
Figure 4.1 Generation of low frequency bands by using
DAW
Description:
A digital audio workstation or DAW is an electronic device
or computer software application for recording, editing and
producing audio files such as songs, musical pieces, human
speech or sound effects. DAWs come in a wide variety of
configurations from a single software program on a laptop, to an
integrated stand-alone unit, all the way to a highly complex
configuration of numerous components controlled by a central
computer.
The computer acts as a host for the sound card/audio
interface, while the software provides the interface and
functionality for audio editing. The sound card/external audio
interface typically converts analog audio signals into digital
form, and digital back to analog audio when playing it back; it
may also assist in further processing of the audio. The software
controls all hardware components and provides the user a
interface that allows for recording, editing, and playback.
Computer-based DAWs have extensive recording,
editing, and playback capabilities (some even have video-related
features). A DAW with a sampled string section emulator can be
used to add string accompaniment “pads” to a pop song. DAWs
can also generate effects such as reverb, to enhance or change
the sounds themselves.
Features:
? Synthesize sounds add effects in a chain, including EQ,
compression, limiting, reverb, distortion, etc. this must
apply both to tracks and busses.
? Mix the tracks to a single file which can be saved
on the host system.
? A way to integrate third-party plug-ins
? Set tempos and have the system automatically
create bar lines which act as snap nodes.
? Create loops from segments of any track and repeat
them easily.
Figure 4.2 process of producing Binaural
Frequencies
2. Eliminating the unwanted frequency ranges/ Equalizing
the Frequency Bands
This step involves mastering the obtained frequencies to
remove all the unwanted Frequency Bands.
3. Exporting the Frequencies at a very high sample rate
After In order to ensure that there is no additive noise
induced in the exporting of the audio, the sample rate is
IJIREEICE ISSN (Online) 2321-2004
ISSN (Print) 2321- 5526
International Journal of Innovative Research in
Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering
ISO 3297:2007 Certified
Vol. 6, Issue xx, 2018
kept of the order of 192000. This ensures the integrity of
the exported Frequencies
4. Postulating the rubric for measurement
The Binaural frequencies are measured with reference to
the subjects Pulse-rate, and the blood systolic and diastolic
pressure. The rubric of measurement is directly correlated
to the person’s mental state. As the mental state of a person
has direct interaction with the Rubrics of measurement.
5. Sampling on subjects in a controlled environment
Before performing the regression analysis, sampling was
done to test the effectiveness of the synthesized frequency
bands. The sample space was segregated into different
divisions based on different criteria’s, the primary one
being the most likely mental state that the subjects of the
group are likely be in.
6. Running Regression models
The collected data was quantified by visual models and
charts to prove the credibility of the project’s claim.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Activity Pulse rate
before
activity
Pulse rate
after
activity
Player 1 137 102
Player 2 120 91
Player 3 175 127
Player 4 136 107
Player 5 121 105
Player 6 132 110
Player 7 133 117
Player 8 178 129
Table. 1: Data from Sportsperson
Result Chart (Subject: Sportspersons)
Activity Pulse rate
before
activity
Pulse rate
after
activity
Study 110 99
Study 102 95
Study 92 85
Study 90 83
Study 90 85
Study 107 95
Table. 2: Data from Students
Result Chart (Subject: Students)
VI. CONCLUSION
Thus after referring IEEE and various other research papers, we
concluded that Binaural Frequencies can be used to induce a
specific cortical rhythm as a means of consciousness
management technique to alter ones neural activity. Binaural
beats are auditory responses which originate in the superior
IJIREEICE ISSN (Online) 2321-2004
ISSN (Print) 2321- 5526
International Journal of Innovative Research in
Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering
ISO 3297:2007 Certified
Vol. 6, Issue xx, 2018
olivary nucleus of each hemisphere.. Binaural frequencies can
be generated by aurally exciting each olivary nucleus of the two
brain hemispheres.
VII. APPLICATIONS
1. Increased Relaxation
Binaural beats allows the user to tap into relaxation at the touch
of a button, which is great, if he/she under a heavy schedule
with minimal time. By listening to a theta recording user can go
from highly-strung to ultra-chilled in just a few minutes.
2. Better Sleep
The knock on effect of being able to relax on demand is better
sleep. By listening to binaural beats on a daily basis the human
brain is slowly adapted to learn to relax on demand.
3. Deep Meditation
Human brains are used to run in high activity frequency zones
that center the mind for meditation is near to
impossible. Binaural beats helps in achieving low brainwave
frequency while at the same time maintaining a high level of
consciousness. No matter the type of meditation user is
practicing, binaural beats will help the user to access the realm
of higher awareness faster, and help him/her to stay there for
longer.
4. Mindfulness
Even when the user gets a free time for themselves it’s tough to
remain undistracted, even if no one else is around. The mind is
easily scattered, and is usually everywhere but not in the
moment where user wants to be in.
5. Increased Positivity
Studies have shown that the effect of binaural beats on the brain
is such that it boosts positivity in everyday life. Users
consistently report feelings of increased optimism, contentment
and happiness.
6. Increased Concentration
While binaural beats technology is widely known for relaxing
the brain, the recordings can also be used to increase focus and
concentration. Binaural beats are capable of eliminating stress
and pressure from the mind, thus making the user more focused
and attentive.
7. Body Healing
Binaural beats can’t directly heal illness, but science has long
since proven the intrinsic link between mental health
and physical health. By relieving the mind of stress and anxiety
the body will naturally become healthier and stronger.
8. Lower Stress
Binaural beats help the user enter into a state of peace. Over
time this calm disposition will manifest itself in the user’s
everyday life experience.
9. Eliminate Anxiety
Binaural beats provide relief for those suffering anxiety and
related symptoms such as panic attacks and irrational
thought processes. Listening to binaural beats can help recover
from anxiety around specific life situations.
10. Medical Applications
This Project can be kept as a kit in the hospitals so that the
patients should get cured from the stress and anxiety.
VIII. FUTURE SCOPE
Figure 8.1: Future Scope of the Project
The above figures from the regression analysis prove conducive
to the fact that binaural frequencies when subjected under
controlled conditions and proper delivery mechanisms can
indeed yield conducive results as postulated by the project. The
regression model shows for a matter of fact that the hypothesis
and experimental design of this study is done so as to be able to
answer the question of the effectiveness of BBS’s in facilitating
memory under controlled conditions. Statistically important
IJIREEICE ISSN (Online) 2321-2004
ISSN (Print) 2321- 5526
International Journal of Innovative Research in
Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering
ISO 3297:2007 Certified
Vol. 6, Issue xx, 2018
Conclusions in this study have supported earlier
experimental research which has found BBS’s to be useful
in improving academic performance among mainstream
and Attention Defect/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
populations.
IX. REFERENCES
1. GAO, X., Cao, H., Ming, D., Qi, H., Wang, X., Wang, X., & Zhou,
P. (2014). Analysis of EEG activity in response to binaural beats with
different frequencies. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 94(3),
399-406.
2. Pratt, H., Starr, A., Michalowski, H. J., Dimitrijevic, A., Bleich, N.,
& Mittelman, N. (2010). A comparison of auditory evoked potentials to
acoustic beats and to binaural beats. Hearing research, 262(1), 34-44.
3. Vernon, D., Peryer, G., Louch, J., & Shaw, M. (2014). Tracking
EEG changes in response to alpha and beta binaural beats. International
Journal of Psychophysiology, 93(1), 134-139.
4. Binaural Auditory Beats Affect Vigilance Performance and Mood.
James D Lane, Stefan J Kasian, Justine E Owens, Gail R Marsh.
Physiology & Behavior Volume 63, Issue 2, January 1998, Pages 249–
252.
5. Erik Hoffmann. Brain Training Against Stress. Theory, Methods and
Results from an Outcome Study. Clinical EEG Journal (2005).
6. N.S.Mohd Puzi., R.Jailani, H.Norhazman and N.Mohamad Zaini.
Alpha and Beta Brainwave Characteristics to Binaural Beat Treatment;
In Proceedings of 9th IEEE International Colloquium on Signal
Processing and its Applications (CSPA), 2013. March 8-10 2013, Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia.
7. R. Saab, M. J. McKeown, L. J. Myers, and R. Abu-Gharbieh, “A
Wavelet Based Approach for the Detection of Coupling in EEG
Signals,” in Neural Engineering, 2005. Conference Proceedings. 2nd
International IEEE EMBS Conference on, 2005, pp. 616-620.
8. A. Salvetti and B. M. Wilamowski, “A brain-computer interface for
recognizing brain activity,” in Human System Interactions, 2008
Conference on, 2008, pp. 714-719.
9. G. Oster, “Auditory beats in the brain”, Sci. Am., vol. 229, no. 4, pp.
94-102, Oct. 1973.
10. A. Krishnan, Y. Xu, J. T. Gandour, P. A. Cariani, “Human
frequency-following response: representation of pitch contours in
Chinese tones”, Hear. Res., vol. 189, pp. 1-2, Mar. 2004.

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