is the process by which an individual is encouraged and enabled to develop
fully his or her potentialities. It may also serve the purpose of equipping the
individual, with what is necessary to be a productive member of the society. An
individual acquires and develop knowledge and skills through teaching and
The researcher constructs various graphic organizers on the Science topics of
class VIIth. The graphic organizers included various types e.g.
hierarchy diagrams, cycle maps, spider maps, sequence diagrams, time lines,
cause and effect chart, venn diagram.
Academic Achievement in
Science: Academic achievement refers to the
academic performance in a particular subject. In the present study, it refers
to the mean gained scores by the students obtained in the achievement test in
Science. This test was an investigator made test covering the lessons chosen
for this particular study.
Delimitations of the
Study: The study was concerned with:
study was delimited to Government schools of Jalandhar affiliated to Punjab
School Education Board only.
study was delimited to VIIth class students only.
topics of science as prescribed in the syllabus of VIIth class by
Punjab School Education Board were taken as subject matter (a) Nutrition in
Plants (b) Nutrition in Animals (c) Acids, Bases and Salts (d) Electric Current
and its Effects (e) Our Forests
investigate the significance of difference in achievement in Science of the
groups taught through using graphic organizers strategy and conventional
will be no significant difference in achievement in Science of the groups
taught through graphic organizers strategy and traditional teaching.
The design of the study was experimental in nature. Randomized groups pre
test-post test design was used.
Random sampling technique was followed to select the sample of the study. The
study was conducted over a total of 120 (60 experimental group and 60 control
group) students of VIIth class of Government Schools of Jalandhar,
affiliated to P.S.E.B, Mohali.
Following tools were used in the present study:
test in Science for 7th class students (developed by the
organizers strategy based lesson plans (developed by the investigator).
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of teaching through use
of graphic organizers on achievement in science of VIIth class
school students. For the study, government schools of Jalandhar district were
chosen randomly, each with two sections of VIIth class. In the first
step, two groups one as experimental group and the other as control group were
assigned by matching them on the basis of their age group (10-14 years), who is
not taking any external tuition, coming regularly to school and having
approximately equal marks background. Sixty students were included in each
group. In the second step, achievement test in science of VIIth
class (developed by the investigator) was administered as pre-test. In the
third step, the experimental group was taught through using graphic organizers
(with different graphic organizers concerned with the syllabus of VIIth
class prepared by investigator) for a period of 20 days and for the same period
control group was taught with the help of traditional method. Both the groups
were taught by the investigator herself to control other extraneous variables.
In fourth step achievement test in science was administered to both the groups
as post test. The gain score (Post test scores – Pre test scores) were used as
achievement in science for both the groups.
was used to check the significance of difference in the achievement in science
of the experimental and control groups.
Table: t – ratio of gain
mean scores in Science between experimental and control groups
*Significant at 0.01
level of significance.
The above table value
shows that the mean of gain score in achievement of science for the experimental
and control group were 5.37 and 3.85 respectively. The t-value between these
two groups was found to be 4.61 which in comparison to the table value was
found to be significant at 0.01 level of significance. The result indicates
that the performance of experimental group which wass taught by using graphic
organizers method was more effective than that of control group which was
taught by traditional method.
This leads to the
rejection of hypothesis which states that ‘There will be no significant
difference in achievement in science of the groups taught through using graphic
organizers and traditional teaching.’
Educational Implications: The
result of the study shows that achievement of students in science subject can
be improved by using graphic organizers. Based
on the result obtained, it is therefore suggested that teachers should be
encouraged to use graphic organizers strategy for teaching science in schools.
It is the responsibility of educational institutions to acquaint their science
teachers through seminars and participation in research workshops about
different teaching strategies.
This finding is well
supported by the studies conducted by Griffin & Malone (1995), Kaur (2004),
Shihusa & Keraro (2009), Slicker (2013) and Verma (2016).