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Case Study on GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication).

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is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards
Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second generation
digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets,
mobile.It was first deployed in Finland in 1991.As it was better
adapted it takes 90% of total market in 193 countries and

was developed to replace the 1G i.e Analog cellular networks.It is
originally described as digital networks with
circuit switching system optimized for full duplex voice
telephony.It was then followed by 3G (UMTS) and then by 4G (LTE).
Network Structure consists
of number of discrete sections.It includes:

Base Station subsystem

Network and switching Subsystem

GPRS Core Network

Operations Support system (OSS).


Improved spectrum efficiency

International roaming

Compatibility with integrated services digital network (ISDN)

Support for new services.

SIM phonebook management

Fixed dialing number (FDN)

Real time clock with alarm management

High-quality speech

Uses encryption to make phone calls more secure

Short message
service (SMS)

Radio Subsystem:Its
comprises of all radio specific entities ie: MS and and BSS the
connection between RSS and NSS are via ‘A’ interface and the
connection to the OSS via ‘O’ interface
GSM network consist of many bss each bs is controlled by bsc,the bss
all functions. MS uses Sim card.Sim card consist of many identity
details,Pin,Puk and Authentication key and IMSI. MS store dynamic
info while lock on to GSM service cypher key,location info,TMSI and
LAR.It can also offer other types of interface to user which consist
of microphone,loudspeaker and services like bluetooth function as
camera,calenders,address book,games etc.
Transreceiver Station):
antenna,amplifiers,signal processsing necessary for radio
transmmision,A BTS can form a radio cell using sectorized antenna
.BTS is connected to MS via linear interface and BSC via ABis
Station Controller):
manages all BTS,it reserves radio frequency,handle from one bts to
another within BSS.BSC also multiplexes the radio channels to fix
network conection at the a interface
Switching Subsytem):
heart of GSM system is form by NSS,it connects wireless network to
standard public network .
performs handover switching,between different BSS. It consist of
function for localization

MSC(Mobile Station

Msc are high performance
digital,isdn switches,they setup connection to other msc and to the
bsc via a interface


A GMSC has additional connections
to the other metwork such as PSTN and ISDN.Using additional
interworking function IWF on msc can also connect to PDN

HLR(Home Location Register):

it is the most important database
in gsm system.it stors all user relevant information.it consist os
static information like subscribed services,call forwarding
,roaming,gprs etc

dynamic information as current
location area of the ms,the mobile subscriber roaming number,current
vlr and msc.hlr can manage million of customer.

VLR(Visitor Location

VLR is associated with each msc
and store all important information nedded for the ms user.its is
imsi and hlr address address.if a new ms comes into an LA the vlr is
resposibile to copy all relevant information from that hlr.some vlr
are capable of managing 1 billion customer.

OSS(Operation Sub System):

The necessary function forms
network operation and maintenance.it consiste of omc,auc,eir.it
monitorsand controls all the other network entity via O interface
.its function includes traffic monitoring,status report of
network,subscriber and security manager ,accounting,billing etc

AUC(Authentication center):

its is used to protect user
identity and data transmission, it conains algorithm for
authentication as well as keys for encryption and generate the values
nedded for authentication in hlr.

EIR(Equipment Identity

Its is a database for all imei.it
stores all device identification registration for the network


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