the lives of average working Americans in many ways. New inventions in
technology for farmers and railroads cause a lack of need for workers forcing
them to move to cities to find employment. Skilled workers were replaced by
machines that could do the job faster and unskilled workers to man the
machines. They were subjected to long
work days sometimes 10-16 hours, six days a week with no holidays or vacations.
Women and children were forced into the work field to help with family
finances. The unsanitary working condition in these factories was hazardous and led to ill health and
accidents and even death on the job. They were subject to extremely high
temperatures and no medical insurance or compensation for workers who were
injured on the job. With so many people needing jobs the employers could set
the pay rate extremely low. Unskilled workers could make 8 to 10 dollars an hour, women made on third of that and
children one-tenth. Because of the need
to move to the city for jobs, there was a
lot of overcrowding. Small apartments housed ten to fifteen people. Most people
lived in the slums where diseases spread rapidly due to overcrowding and lack
of medical care. As industrialization occurred, the middle
class emerged. The middle class, skilled workers, managers, clerks,
accountants, and others, had the money they needed to survive. They were able
to live comfortably and many could move from the cities into what it becoming
known as the suburbs.
industrialization affected the life of the average working American.
now had to leave the home and join the workforce. Women were paid poorly and
had to work long hours in very poor conditions. While women use to work in the
home either spinning, or weaving, or sewing they were now in factories, in
horrible conditions. High temperatures and filthy environments. Some women were
fortunate enough to become maids for wealthier families, or work as governesses
for rich children. The less fortunate may have been forced to work in shocking
conditions during the day and then have to return home to take care of
household duties. Women also faced societies demand to have children. The industrial age led to a rapid increase in
birth rates. Some families would have more than 10 children, and the woman
would often have to work up to and straight after the day of the child’s birth to
ensure they would be ok financially.
were affected. For families to survive poverty they needed all member s of the
family to work even children, they had to give up on education and work long hours
for little pay, they made at most one-tenth
of a man’s pay. Because they were so small they were able to be put into tiny
spaces like mines. Because of the hazardous work conditions, children’s health
deteriorated and many children were killed in accidents in these factories and
Americans had to deal with Segregation know as Jim Crow. Segregation was a
byproduct of the Industrial Revolution and urbanization. African Americans took
jobs that no one else would want such as maids, porters, and waiters. While Northern states practiced a
societal form of segregation through the discriminatory
housing, bank lending, and employment
practices, Southern states practiced legal segregation through Jim Crow laws. These
laws were extended to schools, streetcars, libraries, restaurants, parks, zoos,
and even residential areas. African Americans were subject to conditions close
to slavery even after the Civil War. Black Codes were laws that
granted certain legal rights to blacks, like the right to marry, or own property and sue in court, but it was illegal
for blacks to serve on juries, or to testify against white people, or serve in the
military. The Black Codes required African American sharecroppers and tenant
farmers to sign annual labor contracts with white landowners. If they refused
they could be arrested and hired out for work. Most black Americans lived in
desperate rural poverty after slavery.
many groups were affected by industrialization we will look at just three. We
will see how African Americans, Children, and
women were affected by industrialization.
that were affected by industrialization.
were many aspects of industrialization that affected
society, politics, and economy between
1865 and 1920. Many businesses and factories were built during the industrial revolution
in the nation’s towns and cities. Americans migrated from the countryside to
cities in search of workers leaving their
homes and jobs as farmers. During these same years, immigrants, mostly from Europe, moved to the United
States—one of the largest mass migrations in human history—and while some
settled on farms, most also moved into these cities for work. The economy
became dominated by big corporations instead of family businesses. Despite the
growth in wealth and industry urbanization also had some negative effects. On
the whole, working-class neighborhoods were bleak, crowded, dirty, and
polluted. Laissez-faire during the age of
industrialization allowed American factories operated with a free hand. This allowed companies to treat workers
harshly, be underpaid and work in hazardous conditions. Working long hours for
very little pay in hazardous working conditions.
aspects of industrialization between 1865 and 1920.
The Civil War paved the
way in turning the United States into the land of opportunity. It was a
traumatic experience that changed American society. In this paper, we will look
at the changes brought on by the Civil War and the Industrial Revolution.