Introduction seemed to be a propensity fort those more

Introduction

One of the elements
that can recoginized  the city image is
landmarks, which are simple physical elements that may differ widley in gauge.
There seemed to be a propensity fort those more familiar with a city to rely
progressively on systems of landmarks for their guides to enjoy uniqueness and
specialization, in place of the continuities used earlier. It is the external
point reference to the observer. In Sulaymaniyah city all mountain are
concidered as a known landmark, this landmark is at risk of getting visually
poluted (lynch, 1960).

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There are many
types of polution havebeen classified Pollutions have negative effects on our lives
in various ways. Most of talked about some type of polution ( air , land area,
and water pollution ) however in fact that visual polution is another type of
polution and unconventional concept. (Milan KumarJana, 2015)

Ourfirst
impressionof acommunityisitsvisual environment that entailsamosaicofbuilt and
naturalforms. Visualpollution isdefined asthe wholeofirregularformations,mayreferto
everythingaltered byhuman-activitiesthatare unattractive andaffects
people’sabilityto enjoy  or appreciate
the view andvista.  (Milan KumarJana, 2015)

Anythingthatinterfereswiththe “pretty  scenes” andother defacementmay  become a cause ofvisualpollution. It  mayconsistof garbage(solid waste)thrown in
differentplaces, cablesor wires running in 
theurban areasin quitean unorganized way, billboardsill-arrangedand
dazzling, old dilapidated buildings, dumped construction materials, utility poles,
skywritingetc. They aresubjectiveand literally, depend on the eye of  thebeholder. Butthiseye,thatis, thesenses
getsmodified on exposureto  such
pollutantsforlong. (Milan KumarJana, 2015)

Visual pollution is
making negative changes in the natural environment and turning visual healthy
areas into something that agitates them (Yilmaz,
2010)

There are other
definitions of visual pollution which states that it’s the whole of unequal
formations which are found in built up and natural environment, usually seen
indirectly and leaves negative impressions in people’s memory (Yilmaz, 2010)

Tall buildings have a
significant impacton urban infrastructure and envi-ronmental quality. In the area
of environmental quality, their effect on the appearance of the city is a major
one. Aesthetic quality is often thought by ‘hardnosed’ professionals and the
sociologically oriented” to be a trivial issue (Appleyard & Fishman, 1977).
However, there is strong evidence that aesthetic issues are the most important
evaluators of environmental quality for city residents and workers (Dornbusch
& Gelb, 1977). Furthermore, all cities today are much concerned about their
“image” as a potential tourist destination. A study of tourist literature,
postcards produced for sale to tour-ists, and the use of establishing shots in
television suggests that the form of the urban skyline is an extremely
important component of this image. In most cases, tall buildings are the most
striking component of the urban skyline. With growing recognition of the impact
of tall buildings on the aesthetic quality of the urban environment, there has
been a corresponding tendency to make regulations that have aesthetic effect as
their primary or sole objective. Such regulations often impose costs on owners
of buildings, which are then passed on to the community at large by way of
rents. However, despite calls for a systematic research program (Appleyard
& Fishman, 1977), there has until recently been little empirical study of
this issue. (Heath, 2000)

 

Literature review

some initial qualitative research
focused on effects of  exposure to visual
pollution maybevast  and penetrating.
Theyinclude:distraction, decreasesin opinion diversity, and lossofidentity,
trafficcongestion, health hazardsofdiversekinds irritabilityandpsychological
disturbances,eyefatigue, loss of sense of hygiene and aesthetics,
feelingofcivility, thus over all loss of quality of life of there siding  community. (Milan KumarJana, 2015)

in this research researcher tried to make comparission between to some
places to compire the ratio of pollution between them, on the other hand tried
to servey throw on the questionary method , they select persons randomly were
interviewed.

 

 

Other researches point
out to some of the reasons of visual pollution such as: education levels and
culture, inconsiderateness of local administrations, legal deficiencies,
ineffective decisions, lack of control, uses that are not well-suited with the
functions

The effects of visual
pollutions can be observed in general as well as in the details which are part
of the buildings or urban spaces. Visual pollution in environments is caused by
repetitious and condensed structuring and absence of green elements and an
original character, and neglected buildings with disproportionate number of
floors and badly planned transportation systems.  (Yilmaz, 2010)

People are always in
contact with their environments. There is a constant balance between human
beings and their environments. The weakening of this balance has such negative
effects on people as distraction, eye fatigue, reluctance, unproductivity,
decrease in opinion diversity, decrease in stimulation, adaptation
difficulties, nervousness, behavioral disorder, pessimism, nausea, psychic
trauma, decrease in joy of living, increase in psychosomatic illnesses, and
vertigo. quality living is a main right of people. The Article 56 of the
constitution of the Republic of Turkey reads, ‘Everyone has the right to live in
a healthy and balanced environment. It is the duty of the state and citizens to
improve the natural environment, and to prevent environmental pollution’ (Yilmaz, 2010). The famous Spanish philosopher.

 Ordegay Gasset (1883-1955), said, “the good
part of my soul is the gift of sights, if I had spent my lifetime in savagery
of cities, now I would be more mild-mannered and deeply thoughtful person. Tell
me which sight/environment you want to live, I say who you are /what your
character is”, which, focuses on the effects of the visual qualities of cities
and the development and changes in these cities on the people.

Other researches
clarify the effects of tall buildings on changing the skyline of cities and the
image of the cities. Tall buildings have a significant influence on urban
infrastructure and environmental quality. their influence on the appearance of
the city is a major one in manners of environment quality. Aesthetic quality is
often thought by “‘hardnosed’ professionals and the sociologically oriented” to
be a trivial issue (Appleyard & Fishman, 1977). However, there is strong
evidence that the most important evaluators of environmental quality for city
residents and workers are aesthetic issues (Dornbusch & Gelb, 1977).
Moreover, “image” of the city is a great concern of all cities today as it is a
great potential tourist destination. A study of tourist literature, by the use
of establishing shots in television and selling postcards to tourists, it
suggests that the form of the urban skyline is a very important component of
this image. Generally, tall buildings are the most prominent component of the
urban skyline. (Smith, 2000)

The dense and high buildings have an adverse effect on
the topographic structure of the city. In addition, the

perceptibility of the important buildings that enrich the
city and that ensures the historical sustainability is

diminishing . (Yilmaz, 2010)

researcher
tried to collect

Despite all the
mentioned above about the effects of the tall buildings on visual pollution and
changing skyline of the city, there is the lack of studying the effects of tall
buildings on the landmarks found in the city. We have taken Sulaymaniyah city
as a case study concerning the effects of tall building 

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