INTRODUCTIONBiochemical (Ultra-Violet) spectroscopy is Electronic spectroscopy as it involves

INTRODUCTIONBiochemical analysis techniques refer to a set of methods,
assays, and procedures that enable scientists to analyze the substances found
in living organisms and the chemical reactions underlying life processes. By
these methods it become quite easy to analyze lots of samples.The most
sophisticated of these techniques are reserved for specialty research and
diagnostic laboratories.SOME COMMON BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES·        
magnetic resonance spectroscopy·        
ray diffraction 1.                       
is a technique which is used to see tiny particles or organism that cannot be
seen with our eyes.Microscope Types
& PrinciplesA general biological microscope
mainly consists of an objective lens, ocular lens, lens tube, stage, and
reflector. An object placed on the stage is magnified through the objective
lens. When the target is focused, a magnified image can be observed through the
ocular lens.Applications of Microscopes·        
main application of microscopes is scientific research.·        
can be used to look at data collected from a crime scene.·        
in laboratories for studying different kinds of cells 2.                       
FLAME PHOTOMETRY  Flame photometry, a branch of atomic
spectroscopy is used for inorganic chemical analysis and the spectrum are in
the form of atoms.PARTS OF A FLAME PHOTOMETER1. Source of flame: this provides blaze and
constant tempreture2.
Nebuliser: helps transport homogeneous solution into flame3.
Optical system: transmits light4.
Photo detector: calculates the intensity of radiationApplication ·        
Used to determine
calcium and magnesium in cement·        
Determination of
alkali and alkaline earth metals·        
Determination of
petrol 3.                       
FluorometryAn analytic method for detecting fluorescent
compounds using a beam of ultraviolet light that excites the compounds and
causes them to emit visible light.4.                       
SPECTROSCOPYIR spectroscopy is the spectroscopic technique
which uses the Infrared light and studies its interaction with the molecules
and give a lot of information about the functional groups associated.PrincipleThe
sum of vibration energy, rotational and electronic energies is equal to energy
of molecules.5.                       
spectroscopy is type of absorption spectroscopy in which light of ultra-violet
region (200-400 nm.) is absorbed by the molecule.The other name of UV
(Ultra-Violet) spectroscopy is Electronic spectroscopy as it involves the
promotion of the electrons from the ground state to the higher energy or
excited state.PRINCIPLEUV
spectroscopy obeys the Beer-Lambert law, which states that: when a beam of
monochromatic light is passed through a solution of an absorbing substance, the
rate of decrease of intensity of radiation with thickness of the absorbing
solution is proportional to the incident radiation as well as the concentration
of the solution.6.  Nuclear magnetic resonance
Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an analytical chemistry technique used
in quality control and reserach for determining the content and purity of a
sample as well as its molecular structure.APPLICATIONTogether,
NMR and MRI revolutionized the practice of chemistry and medicine by providing
fast, non-destructive, and non-invasive means for the observation of matter
from the atomic to the macroscopic scale.7.                       
spectrometry (MS) analysis of proteins measures the mass-to-charge ratio of
ions to identify and quantify molecules in simple and complex mixtures.Basic PrincipleA
mass spectrometer generates multiple ions from the sample under investigation,
it then separates them according to their specific mass-to-charge ratio (m/z),
and then records the relative abundance of each ion type.ComponentsThe
instrument consists of three major components:·        
Ion Source:
For producing gaseous ions from the substance being studied.·        
For resolving the ions into their characteristics mass components according to
their mass-to-charge ratio.·        
Detector System: For detecting the ions and recording the
relative abundance of each of the resolved ionic species.8.                       
spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of
monochromatic light, usually from a laser source.Advantages of Raman Spectroscopy·        
Specificity: Raman bands have a good signal-to-noise
ratio and are non-overlapping.·        
Analysis of
aqueous systems: IR  for analysis of aqueous solutions due to
heavy interference by the water bands. ·        
Short measurement
times: A Raman spectrum can, typically, be
acquired on a timescale·        
No sample
preparation: Raman requires
no special preparation of the sample. 9. X ray diffraction

diffraction, a phenomenon in which the atoms of a crystal, by virtue of their
uniform spacing, cause an interference pattern of the waves present in an
incident beam of X rays. The atomic planes of the crystal act on the X rays in
exactly the same manner as does a uniformly ruled grating on a beam of light. 

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