INTRODUCTION”Climate change is arguably the most severe challenge facing our planet during the 21st century” (Feulner, 2017). Climate change is increasingly having severe impacts on the environment, which has negative consequences on agriculture, water, energy, health and other sectors (Ministry of Water and Environment Uganda, 2015). Cities are the most likely to experience the highest impacts of climate change, as they contain the majority of the world’s population (Hallegatte et al., 2011). In most urban areas in Africa and other developing regions, the poor are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and more specifically in informal settlements (Bohle, 1994). Thus, cities are increasingly being considered as crucial areas for global response to climate change (UN-Habitat, 2011). However, the majority of cities in Africa are inadequately equipped to deal with climate change impacts (Ministry of Water and Environment Uganda, 2015).In recent years local governments have increasingly been taking active roles in climate change policy (Kern & Alber, 2009). While many cities around the world, especially in the global North have developed policies and strategies in dealing with climate change, this is a relatively new phenomenon in Africa (ibid.). Therefore, there is a need for cities and local authorities in Africa to employ sustainable and long term development strategies to address the effects of climate change. For this paper, the Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) serves as a case study.The objective of this paper is to assess energy governance in Kampala through the analysis of the KCCA’s Kampala Climate Change Action Plan. The paper will firstly give a brief background of Kampala and the interrelationship between climate change and the energy sector. It will then describe the Kampala Climate Change Action plan as an initiative in dealing with climate change effects related to the energy sector. Section three discusses several theories on governance; Vertical Governance, Horizontal Governance, Multi-level Governance and Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizen Participation. The fourth section, the analysis, examines the history and structure of the KCCA and makes connections to the selected theories. Finally, the discussion and conclusion section reflects on governance of the Kampala Climate Change Action Plan and suggest possible improvements.1.1 Background of KampalaKampala is the capital city of the East African country of Uganda, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria. It is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world, with a growth rate of around 4% percent yearly (KCCA, 2012). The population of the city has increased from 774,241 in 1991 (UBOS,1991), to 1,189,142 in 2002 (UBOS, 2002) to 1,516,210 in 2014 (UBOS, 2014). Rural-urban migration, natural increase and economic growth are the main causes of this rapid rate of urbanization (KCCA, 2016). With more people moving to Kampala, the number of people living in informal settlements is also growing and it is now estimated that 40% of the city’s population lives in informal housing that lacks basic services, such as water, energy, sanitation facilities, and waste management (KCCA, 2012).Recent climate change models predict a significant average temperature increase in Uganda of up to 1.5ºC in the next two decades (White, 2015). The model also projects changes in rainfall amounts, frequency and patterns, such as a rise in rainfall amounts of up to 10 – 20% in most parts of the country (Lwasa et al., 2009). These changes are being felt in the capital city and the need for the city to address them is urgent (ibid.).Energy is one sector affected by climate change. The greatest energy demand in Kampala comes from residents, followed by commercial and industrial demand (Lwasa et al., 2009). The main sources of energy for domestic use are charcoal, firewood, electricity and petroleum products (ibid.). Energy use in Kampala and other parts of Uganda is dominated by charcoal and firewood, covering about three quarters of total energy needs of the residents in the city (KCCA, 2012). The high reliance on firewood and charcoal has negative effects on the environment and public health, as deforestation and combustion (greenhouse gas emission) impact air quality (Lwasa et al., 2009). Additionally, the use of conventional fuels (oil) for transportation yields the same concerns regarding greenhouse emissions (KCCA, 2016). The demand for energy to generate power in Kampala has also been increasing. This is due to the fact that Lake Victoria’s water levels have been decreasing, meaning that hydropower stations, Kampala’s main source of energy generation, are unable to operate at full capacity (WREM, 2005). At the same time, extreme weather events such as heavy rainfall have had adverse effects on energy infrastructure, such as power plants and transmission lines. These climate related disruptions as well as regular maintenance of energy infrastructure both contribute to an increase in energy prices (Lwasa et al., 2009). In the next section, the KCCA’s Climate Change Action strategy will be outlined.
INTRODUCTION”Climate Section three discusses several theories on governance; Vertical
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