Introduction:Present era, is the era in which energy plays a role of backbone in developing countries some of them like India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Zimbabwe, Iraq etc. Energy sources like coal, wood, natural gas, crude oil is fulfilling increasing demands but the major problem in the case that of their exhausting rate. Thus, the energy sources are very less in number and shortage of energy will be seen in the upcoming years. From above it is clear that we have to move for more dependent sources of energy. In case, renewable sources of energy will become an alternate. Some of the renewable energy sources like biomass, biogas, wind and solar or their integration become an alternate. As solar energy is present in abundant, it is an important renewable energy source as a sustainable energy solution. As biogas production it is also an important renewable energy source and there is lot of advancement is taken place in present time, so it is also a sustainable energy solution.Bio gas production is taken place in a digester through anaerobic decomposition(AD) of slurry. Generally, slurry is a mixture of cow dung and water in the ratio of 65:35. Anaerobic decomposition(AD) includes breakdown of bio-degradable substance with help of micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic decomposition(AD) includes a series of bio-chemical processes (hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis & methanogenesis). Lot of research is also taken place on the feedstock or slurry to produced efficient amounts of methane such as wheat straw, Stover, switch grass, municipal waste & food.The temperature of slurry is the important factor in generation of biogas and for maintaining the temperature of the slurry in colder areas there are various techniques be used some of them like solar thermal (water heater) integration, heating of slurry before entering into digester, active heating includes flat plate collector integration, with the help of heat exchanger in to the slurry inside the digester. With the comparative study it is found that the case of maintaining temperature with the integration of flat plate collector i.e. active heating is more effective than others. The temperature of the slurry should be maintained up to the level of 37 oC with the help of active heating. As from solar rays two energies are mainly generated i.e. light and heat and we can also use that light to form electricity with the help of photo-voltaic(PV) cells, solar energies incident on the PV modules also absorbs some heat which results in decreased life of them, efficiency of the PV modules. Therefore, in this integrated structure of the PV modules and flat plate collectors, thermal energy that gained by PV modules is transferred to the fluid that is flowing through the pipes of flat plate collectors and then we can use that heat for space heating and water heating as well. This integration reduces temp. of solar cell, and results in electrical and overall efficiency of the PV modules and the system. These systems thus formed commonly known as PHOTO-VOTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS (PVTHS) and the system formed in integration with bio gas systems known as PHOTO-VOLTAIC THERMAL BIO GAS HYBRID SYSTEMS (PVTBGHS). The results that we can achieve with this integration are as under: -· Temperature of the slurry is maintained for maximum yield rate of biogas.· Electricity production from integrated photo-voltaic thermal unit.· Hot water as solar thermal result for domestic use.· Life and efficiencies of the PV modules increased.2. ADVANCEMENT IN PHOTO-VOLTAIC SYSTEM: -Technology is advancing at a high rate, with this advancement in technology there are lot of advancement is taken place in photo-voltaic systems, the advancement is not residing up to solar air heaters, solar water heaters, solar home lightning, solar space cooling, solar desalination, building integrated photo-voltaic, concentrated photo-voltaic has under consideration and studied using exergetic and energetic approaches. There are different types of photo-voltaic materials for solar cells that are used to be find in markets. Now these days, the leading solar cells are silicon based ones because of their efficiencies and matured technologies. Various researchers are working on developing and finding of new material based solar cells, research and development(R&D) department also working at a high rate for developing of new material. Different authors gave their views on the solar cell materials & their applications and reviewed them. For low cost & due to flexibility in nature thin film technologies are taken in account. From the potential of Thin film technologies, we can consider that it will become a new technology in solar cells. Now days, solar prices are down up to $0.75 per watt, which is 50% less than the cost of crystalline based solar cells. For various scientific communities the factor of conversion efficiency is plays a vital role in solar cells. So, it is important to develop new materials for solar cells. Various scientist is working on new materials some materials are cadmium-sulfide (CdS), cadmium-tellurium(CdTe), amorphous silicon, CIS. These elements in solar cell leads to its enhancing efficiency of thin film solar photo-voltaic technology. This technology not only helps in enhancement in efficiency, also helps in lowering of environment problems. The recent development in efficiency of solar cell is given in Fig.1.
Introduction:Present place in present time, so it is also
August 2, 2019August 2, 2019| | 0 Comment