Marto basal geogrid and unreinforced clay bed. Coefficient of

Marto and Othman
(2011) presented a paper on
the potential use of bamboo as green material for soft clay reinforcement
system. Three embankments viz; BGC embankment, HSG embankment and UR embankment
were constructed to determine the performance. From the test results, BGC
embankment shows better performance than UR embankment and HSG embankment.

Adams et al.
(1997) conducted large scale
model spread footing load test to evaluate the advantage of geosynthetic
reinforced soil foundations. The 2 different geosynthetics used in this study
were stiff biaxial geogrid and geocell. The parameters studied were number of
reinforcement layers, spacing between the reinforcement layers, depth to the
first reinforcement layer, plane area of the reinforcement, the type of
reinforcement and soil density. The depth to first reinforcement layer from the
base of footing should be within 0.25B for maximum improvement in bearing
capacity at low strain.

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Aazokhi Waruwu (2014) conducted model test to study the effect of bearing capacity
when the peat soil is reinforced with bamboo grid. The bearing capacity of the
shallow foundation is very low if it is unreinforced. The bearing capacity can
be increased by increasing the number of bamboo reinforcement grid layers.

Hegde and Sitharam (2016) conducted
laboratory cyclic plate load test to compare the performance of soft clay bed
reinforced with geocell, geocell with additional basal geogrid and unreinforced
clay bed. Coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu) was
calculated from the cyclic plate load test. The Cu value was
obtained maximum when the combination of geocell and geogrid were used. The
soil reinforced with geocell and geogrid has improved the Cu value
by 12 times the unreinforced soil. Due to the presence of geocell and geogrid, there
is an increase in strain modulus by 3 times, bearing capacity by 10 times,
stiffness by 8 times and 90% settlement reduction were observed.

Laman et al. (2013)
conducted a series of large scale field tests to
study the load-settlement behavior of circular footings placed over natural
clayey
soil and geogrid reinforced granular fill underlain by clay soil. The bearing
capacity of the footing is increased and settlement is decreased when compacted
granular fill is used. The use of two layers of geogrid reinforcement in the
compacted granular fill layer significantly increases the value of subgrade
modulus.

Hegde
and Sitharam (2015) carried out the experimental and
analytical studies to compare the performance of bearing capacity improvement
of soft soil reinforced with naturally available bamboo and that with
commercially available geosynthetics. The efficiency
of bamboo cell is compared with that of the commercially available geocell. It
is concluded from the study that instead of using geocells and geogrids, bamboo
cells and bamboo grids can be used as reinforcement for cost effective ground
improvement technique.  Surface
deformation can also be reduced.

Dash (2012) carried out a series
of model test to study the effect of geocell type on load carrying mechanism of
geocell reinforced sand foundation under strip loading. Three
different types of goegrids are used to make the geocells. The performance of
geocell reinforced foundation bed was influenced by the strength, stiffness,
aperture opening size and orientation of the ribs of the geogrid used to make
the geocell mattress. Geogrid having smaller aperture opening have higher
confinement and higher compressive strength is induced to the confined soil,
this give rise to better performance improvement. Increase in strength of
geocell mattress improves the bearing capacity. Geogrid with square or
rectangular opening with its rib oriented perpendicular and parallel to footing
was used for making geocell mattress, since they effectively resist against
footing penetration through the mobilization of vertical compression and
horizontal anchorage.

Dixit
and Patil (2014) studied the effect of reinforcement on
bearing capacity and settlement of sand under square footing. Fibre glass
geogrid was used to reinforce the sand in this study. The depth of top
reinforcement layer and D/B ratio of reinforcement were the parameters studied.
As the size of the plate increases the bearing capacity gets increased. Also,
D/B ratio decreases, bearing capacity gets increased.

Bazne et al. (2014)
investigated the possibility of using geonet as reinforcement in addition to
the drainage purpose. The parameters studied were shape and size of the
footing, the number of layers, length, spacing and depth of first layer of
geonet reinforcement. The study concluded that the geonet reinforcement significantly
increases the bearing capacity of soft clayey soil up to 6 times more that its
original condition. From the various shape of the footing, the square footing
showed better performance with a BCR of 7.6. The optimum length of
reinforcement for 2 and 3 layer models were found to be 2B.

Hegde and Sitharam (2015) studied
the joint strength and wall deformation characteristics of a single – cell
geocell subjected to uniaxial compression. Infill material shows an influence
in wall deformation and joint failure of geocell. Lesser deformation of cell
occurs by using the infill material with higher friction angle. The
experimental results were compared with the numerical analysis. Both results
were in good agreement with each other. The performance of aggregate as infill
material shows better results in terms of bearing capacity improvement and
reduction in the wall deformation when compared to sand and res soil. Because
of its higher size and cost, sand is preferred to use in the field. 

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