A1. i) Groups are fundamental part
of social life. They can be highly rewarding to their members and to society as
a whole, but there are also significant problems and dangers with them. All
this makes them essential focus for research, exploration and action.
iii) * Affiliation need
to establish a sense of identity and enhance self-respect
to validate their beliefs and values
for help in solving work problems
to get information
for support for individual innovation and originality.
is when the group is just formed and members are formally placed together in a
work group. At this stage, group members try to comprehend where they stand in
the group and how they are being perceived by others in the group. The members
are very cautious in their interactions with each other and the relationships
among the group members are very superficial.
the formal group is created, internal sub groups get developed. Due to the
newness of the group, there are limited interactions initially among the
members of the group. However, small groups of two or three members interact
with each and make an effort to get to know each other better.
Norming is the next
stage where the disagreements, differences and power issues which were dominant
at the storming stage gets worked out. The group sets norms, tries to attain
some degree of cohesiveness, understands the goals of the group, starts making
good decisions, express feelings, openly and makes attempts to resolve problems
and attain group effectiveness, At this stage, which is also known as
individual differentiation stage or initial integration stage, the individuals
roles get defined and the task and maintenance roles are assumed by group
members. Group members also being to express satisfaction and confidence about
being members of the group.
performing stage, the group has matured fully. The members are committed to the
group goals, have complete trust in each other and allow honest disagreements
to be freely expressed but make sure that the conflicts are satisfactorily
resolved as and when they occur.
work groups, performing is the last stage in their development. However, for
temporary committees, team’s task forces and similar groups that have a certain
specific and limited task to perform, there is an adjourning stage. In this
stage the group prepares for its disbandment. (Businessdictonary.com
/ managementstudyhg.com / yourarticlelibrary.com, n.d.)
is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors,
skills, values, or preferences. Evidence that learning has occurred may be seen
in changes in behavior from simple to complex, from moving a finger to skill in
synthesizing information or change in attitude.
Learning takes time and patience. It is a process a journey life. A
self-directed learning process is arguably the most powerful model for
facilitating and inspiring individuals, group and organizational learning and
We provide a learning process to empower people to guide themselves
through their personal learning and development journey.
theories are conceptual frame works describing how knowledge is absorbed,
processed, and retained during learning, connective, emotional, and
environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how
understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills
look at learning as an aspect of conditioning and will advocate a system of
rewards and targets in educations.
or changes in behaviors are acquired through associations between stimuli and
processing leads to understanding and retention.
knowledge of the world based on individual’s experience. (wikipedia,
A3. A predisposition
or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea,
object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual’s choice of
actions, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards. Four major
components of attitude are:
Affective: emotions or feelings or feelings
Cognitive: belief or opinions held consciously
Evaluative: Positive or negative response to stimuli.
ii) A interaction between
individual and contextual factors is the central theme in development of
personality. Molecular genetics offers the most valuable opportunity for
increasing our understandings of the joint effect of nature. Sensitivity to
environmental advertises send benefits may be conditional on genetic
background, and the nature nurture interactions may be of greater importance
than direct than trait associations. In our recent series of studies, we have shown
that difference variants of serotonergic and dopaminergic genes may moderate
the influence of environmental conditions on a range of psychological outcomes,
at least on temperament, depression, and hostility. These studies suggest that,
depending on their genotype, people may differentially sensitive to the
environmental conditions they encounter. In light of these results, it seems
highly plausible that the effects of genes may become evident only when studied
in the context of environmental factors.
iii) Good leadership is essential to business, to government and to
the numerous groups and organizations that shapes the way we live, work and
play. Having a great idea, and assembling a team to bring the concept to life
is the first step in creating a successful business venture.
Jose can become a good leader by, Start by understanding your
leadership style, understanding your current leadership style is essential.
Serve as a role model, Idealized influence is another of the four key
components of transformational leadership. Transformational leaders exemplify
the behaviors and characteristics that they encourage in their followers. They
walk the walk and talk the talk. As a result group members admire these leaders
and work to emulate these behavior.
Jose can motivate his followers, transformational leaders also
provide inspirational motivation to encourage their followers to get into
action. (verywell.com / businessdictonary,
A4. Leadership is the ability to
influence others, with or without authority.
All successful endeavors are the result of human effort thus the
ability to influence other is a derivation of:
There are mainly 6 types of leader ship. They are:
by the position achieved.
by moral example.
by power held.
because of ability to accomplish things.
Leadership development entails nurturing, encouraging, incubating,
and mentoring prospective leaders. In many organizations, the HR department in
conjunctions with senior management identifies potential leaders or fast
trackers who are capable and ensures that they are motivated and encouraged to
give their best. This form of mentoring and coaching of of future leaders
happens through organizational commitment to their development that includes
sending them to specialized training programs, making them attend targeted
workshops and taking them to resorts and getaways with the express purpose of
ensuring that these prospective leaders get all the encouragement and
strategies to groom them into senior level positions. (managementstudyguide.com,