Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use, with the
purpose of meeting human necessities while conserving the environment so that
these needs can be met not only in the present but also for generations to come.
Increasing population growth rates is a challenge that the future generations
are facing, which results in the rise of need for more resources for energy. Therefore
natural resources should be liberally secured in spite of intense human
activity. Sustainable development is influenced by three major factors such as
environmental, economic and socio-political factors. Therefore these goals must
be met to achieve sustainable development. For example to guarantee a
sustainable development there must be a healthy population that is economically
empowered, with a sensible mind, educated and with preferable values. Such type
of population is as an effect of good governance and proper policies. Some of
the factors essential for sustainable development comprise of; right management
of natural resources, poverty abolition, proper utilization behaviors that will
lead to sustainable production patterns and proper policies in respect of environment
management and investment.
Wasteland Reclamation means re-claiming it or to use it for
productive purpose. Wasteland reclamation is the method of changing infertile,
sterile wasteland into something that is fertile and appropriate for habitation
The need for wasteland reclamation includes:
source of income to poor people.
a constant supply of fuel, fodder and timber for local use.
soil fertile by preventing soil erosion and conserving moisture.
program helps maintain ecological balance in the area.
increasing forest cover helps in maintaining local climatic conditions.
methods of wasteland reclamation includes Afforestation,
Reforestation, Providing surface cover, Mulching, Changing ground topography on
downhill, Leaching, Changing agricultural practices and Ecological succession.
ecosystem. Describe in detail various components of an ecosystem with suitable
Ans: It is the fundamental
unit of ecology which includes all the living things in the area, their
surroundings, and all the different ways in which they interact with each other
is called as an ecosystem.
It is a non-living
environment of the ecosystem. Solar energy provides all the energy for the
substances: Sulphur, boron, etc.
compound, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids etc.
conditions and physical factors of the given region
biotic components of an ecosystem include all the living components. In this
type of classification, these are:
i)Autotrophs (primary producers)
a) Phototrophs uses sun’s energy and store it in complex
organic compounds eg: green plants, algae etc.
b) Chemoautotrophs produces complex organic compounds by
oxidizing reducing inorganic substances.
these organisms cannot
produce their own food.
a) Macro consumers: They
feed on organisms or particulate organic matter.
Eg. Herbivores, carnivores,
b) Micro consumers or decomposers: They feed on dead and
decaying matter eg: bacteria and fungi
2. Suggest measures for conservation and
management of natural resources.
Ans: Natural resource management denotes to
the management of natural resources such as land, water, earth, plants and
animals, with a specific attention on how management affects the value of life
for both existing and upcoming generations.
for Conservation of Natural Resources
preserve ecological equilibrium for supporting life.
reserve different kinds of species (biodiversity).
make the resources accessible for present and upcoming generations.
safeguard the existence of human race.
of Conservation of natural Resources:
Conservation of energy:
a. Switch off lights, fans and other appliances when not
b. Use solar stove for cooking your food on bright days,
which will cut down your LPG costs.
c. Cultivate trees near the households to get a cool gust
and shade, this will cut off your current charges on air conditioners and
Conservation of water:
a. Use minimum quantity of water for all internal
b. Check for water leakages in pipes and repair them
c. Reuse the foam-covered water, after washing clothes,
for washing off the yards, drive ways, etc.
d. Built rainwater collecting system in your households.
Conservation of soil:
a. Grow different types of plants, herbs, trees in your patch
and open zones, which fixes the soil and avoids erosion.
b. Don’t use extra manure and insecticides.
d. While building the house don’t displace the trees as
far as possible.
e. Use assorted cropping, so that some definite soil
nutrients will not get exhausted.
Conservation of food resources:
a. Don’t waste the food instead gives it to someone who
b. Cook only essential quantity of food.
Conservation of timberland:
a. Use non-timber goods.
b. Plant extra trees and guard them.
c. Over grassing must be measured.
d. Diminish the use of papers and firewood.