What role does immigration play in American history? Was immigration necessary? Today we have many immigrants, there are approximately 232,000 illegal or unauthorized immigrants just from the Caribbean islands. Throughout this essay, the four waves of immigration will be explained, along with immigration during the Great Depression, and during world war two. There will also be a section on internal migration. Once we go through the different waves of immigration we learn America does not need immigration, we are immigration. Pre to 1790 was when early immigration started. In the first thousand years, Vikings sailed across the sea’s to America, before it was America. As far I know, most didn’t settle. Five hundred years later, in 1492, Columbus discovered America. This brought people from Europe over throughout the next two hundred years. Then it happened in 1607 the first colony was made in Jamestown, Virginia. The people of Europe came for political and religious freedoms. During Columbus’s adventure, he would take the native Americans and force them to find him gold. During the time period of pre to 1790 many hardships had occurred. Such as a culture clash between the native Americans and Europeans in some areas. Another event that occurred during this time was many diseases (such as smallpox) that had been contracted on the ship. These diseasess were given to the native Americans later on. This was only the beginning of what would happen through the years leading into the first wave of immigration. The year 1790 to the year 1820 was known as the first wave. During this time the people who came to America where people from England, Scotland, Ireland, Germany, people from the Netherlands, France, Spain, and Puritans. Other immigrants included Africans and Caribbeans who were taken as slaves. About 400,000 people came all together. Most colonized what is now the eastern part of the united states, except the French. I’m sure some ended up in the eastern area, but most ended up in Louisiana (creating new Orleans) and Mississippi. The many people who came, came to have religious freedom because back then you could be executed for not having the same beliefs as your king. They also came economic opportunity and freedom in politics. During this time, diseases were still a thing, but due to the spread out populations, the death rate is lower than what it would have been in Europe. The death count was about 1 out of 10 people. Now that we have discussed the different people who have come to America in the first wave, let’s see how it differs from the second wave. The second wave started in 1820 and ended in 1880. During this time more Europeans immigrated to America along with the Irish. Germans and Scandinavians came to. During this time people from China and Ireland suffered much ridicule, due to religion and race. Overall there were almost 15.3 million immigrants who came over to America. During this time people came for a few reasons. The Irish mostly came to escape the great hunger. The people of Asia came for work, and others came for the gold rush, and to follow their dreams. The Immigrants of this time experienced Nativity and hostility. They also experienced organized opposition such as the know-nothings and the yellow peril. Some push and pull factors were transportation cost, The European strife, and finally the “American dream”. The transportation cost were lowered making it easier to travel to America, And the European strife was full of War, famine, revolution, and industrialization making Europeans come to America to find something better. Now that we have learned how people treated the immigrants of the second wave, let’s see if it gets any better for them in the third wave. The third wave happened from 1830 to 1930. It was a golden age for immigration, at the beginning. Many people came during this time. This list consists mainly of people from Mexico, Europe, and Russia. This list also includes Jewish people and Armenians. In total, approximately 22.3 million immigrants came to America. People from southern and eastern Europe came due to the high population in their area. In some places, it was due to the lack of jobs, and food. Due to Mechanization of agriculture, peasants were pushed off their land, sending them to America. During this time, roman jews came to America to escape religious persecution. People came due to the booming industries, such as steel and railroad, offering jobs. There was also democracy, freedom of religion, economic opportunity, and available land. Thanks to steam powered ships the three-month trip went to 2 weeks. Once they came to America, they came to the wonderful Ellis island. Once there, the immigrants were there, they dealt with long lines, hours of showing paperwork, medical test, phycology test, and being detained. Once on the American soil they set up their own businesses, churches, and restaurants, but still suffered discrimination. The immigrants also were not given aid and accused of stealing the jobs of the “native” Americans. Ellis Island was the gateway to the promised land, but after 60 long years, most with pride, the gates closed. Now that we have discussed the golden age of America, and the great Ellis island and its downfall, let’s find out how immigration now works. 1930 to 1965 was considered a low point in US immigration. In the 1930’s the Great Depression started, as a result of the roaring 20’s. In this time period world war two was also an event of this time. Although the war had started in 1939 America didn’t join the war until 1941, when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. Through the 35 years of this time immigration was at an all-time low. During the Great Depression, People had very little incentive to immigrate to America, and the people who recently immigrated returned to their native lands. Even though immigration was low, the restricting immigration policies of 1920 still stood. During the time of world war 2, there was a small increase in immigration, due to a small number of people trying to flee from Nazi persecution. Unfortunately, they were all turned away even though they arrived under the quota system. During this period of time immigrants that chose to stay were treated poorly. Italian and German immigrants were known as resident aliens and detained. The people from Japan were under extreme policies and both resident aliens and Americans- born citizens were imprisoned. Even though this was a major part of immigration, it was not considered a wave, so let’s take a look at the final wave. The fourth wave took place from the year 1965 to the present day. Many people came from many different places. Due to a war in southwest Asia, a number of Asians Immigrated to America. There were also refugees from Cuba, and people from Mexico. Along with people from the Philippines, Korea, Dominican Republic, India, Vietnam, and Canada. All for many reasons. They came due to a rising population in their country. They also came because of intense poverty in the third world countries and government repressions. Thanks to the Invention of the jet aircraft, traveling to America was shorted to a mere few hours. Chain immigration, the act of using family to get you into the country, became a big thing. The immigrants of 2000 experienced what immigrants from earlier eras experienced, such as anti-immigration backlash. They dealt with vigilante groups such as the “Minutemen” who patrolled the southwest border. The people of the fourth wave found themselves settling mainly in seven different states. They settled in golden California, sunny Florida, beloved Texas, shrinking Illinois, PA Pennsylvania, bustling new york, and impatient new Jersey. This wave changed America. It added brought ethnic and religious diversity, turning America into a “rainbow society.” Our waves have come to an end, but while there were was moving from one country to America, there was movement inside each region of the united states. Initial movement in the first wave was restricted due to political and geographic barriers. Political differences between the British, French, Spanish, and Native American controlled differences, and the geographical boundary of the Appalachian mountain. By the second wave, with the aid if industrialization and railroads, people moved from the east to the west. The people were pulled west due to economics but pushed west because of culture and religion. The people moved settled in Chicago, the Midwest, the west coast, and the Mormons went to Utah. In the third wave, people moved from the south to the north. This is because of the civil war, that freed African slaves. Industrialization also took work away from African farmers and created a draw to the northern cities. People from the south were hostile, pushing people to the south. The movement south to north was known as the great migration. During the fourth wave, people moved from the northeast or midwest to the south or southwest. Due to the deindustrialization of the north, unions made labor more expensive, making companies move to foreign countries. The south had also improved their infrastructure, racial tension, and education. The people also were also more beneficial in the south, because of weather taxes and wages. This movement south was more recent than other movements. During this time period, intraregional movement was also a big thing. People rural to urban, urban to suburban, urban to rural, and suburban to urban. So yes, we don’t need immigration, we are immigration. Without immigration we would not be the America we are today, we wouldn’t be America at all, good or bad. We would be undiscovered, unpopulated, lack diversity, we would all most likely be native American, and we would ack culture. You can see that through all four of the waves. In the way we have grown through politics, though hate, through hardship. It all links together creating who we are as a population now. They have made the past, now we need to create a future, because someday people will be learning about us, and how we treated our immigrants.